1.3mu m single photon emission from InAs/GaAs quantum dots
Author(s): Zhang, ZW (Zhang Zhi-Wei); Zhao, CL (Zhao Cui-Lan); Sun, BQ (Sun Bao-Quan)
Source: ACTA PHYSICA SINICA Volume: 67 Issue: 23 Article Number: 237802 DOI: 10.7498/aps.67.20181592 Published: DEC 5 2018
Abstract: Single-photon emitters are crucial for the applications in quantum communication, random number generation and quantum information processing. Self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) have demonstrated to have single-photon emission with high extraction efficiency, single-photon purity, and photon indistinguishability. Thus they are considered as the promising deterministic single-photon emitters. To extend the emission wavelength of InAs/GaAs QDs to telecom band, several methods have been developed, such as the strain engineered metamorphic quantum dots, the use of strain reducing layers and the strain-coupled bilayer of QDs. In fact, it is reported on single-photon emissions based on InAs/InP QDs with an emission wavelength of 1.55 mu m, but it is difficult to combine such QDs with a high-quality distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) cavity because the refractive index difference between InP and InGaAsP is too small to obtain a DBR cavity with high quality factor. Here we investigate 1.3 mu m single-photon emissions based on self-assembled strain-coupled bilayer of InAs QDs embedded in micropillar cavities. The studied InAs/GaAs self-assembled QDs are grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a semi-insulating (100) GaAs substrate through strain-coupled bilayer of InAs QDs, where the active QDs are formed on the seed QDs capped with an InGaAs layer, and two-layer QDs are vertically coupled with each other. In such a structure the emission wavelength of QDs can be extended to 1.3 mu m. The QDs with a low density of about 6 x 10(8) cm(-2) are embedded inside a planar 1-lambda GaAs microcavity sandwiched between 20 and 8 pairs of Al0.9Ga0.1 As/GaAs as the bottom and top mirror of a DBR planar cavity, respectively. Then the QD samples are etched into 3 mu m diameter micropillar by photolithography and dry etching. The measured quality factor of studied pillar cavity has a typical value of approximately 300. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of QDs at a temperature of 5 K are examined by using a micro-photoluminescence setup equipped with a 300 mm monochromator and an InGaAs linear photodiode array detector. A diode laser with a continuous wave or a pulsed excitation repetition rate of 80 MHz and an excitation wavelength of 640 nm is used to excite QDs through an near-infrared objective (NA 0.5), and the PL emission is collected by the same objective. The time-resolved PL of the QDs is obtained by a time-correlated single photon counting. The second-order correlation function is checked by a Hanbury-Brown and Twiss setup through using ID 230 infrared single-photon detectors.
In summary, we find that the 1.3 mu m QD exciton lifetime at 5 K is measured to be approximately 1 ns, which has the same value as the 920 nm QD exciton lifetime. The second-order correlation function is measured to be 0.015, showing a good characteristic of 1.3 mu m single photon emission. To measure the coherence time, i.e., to perform high-resolution linewidth measurements, of the QDs emitted at the wavelength of 920 and 1300 nm, we insert a Michelson interferometer in front of the spectrometer. The obtained coherence time for 1.3 mu m QDs is 22 ps, corresponding to a linewidth of approximately 30 mu eV. Whereas, the coherence time is 216 ps for 920 nm QDs, corresponding to a linewidth of approximately 3 mu eV. Furthermore, both emission spectral lineshapes are different. The former is of Gaussian-like type, while the latter is of Lorentzian type.